Neurofeedback & Biofeedback Training

What is Clinical Neurofeedback?

Clinical Neurofeedback refers to the combination of Psychotherapy and Neurofeedback.

Both interventions aim to help clients understand their mind and their brain. Neurofeedback is an intervention that uses the brain’s capacity to change in order to regulate the brain's electrical activity. It is a direct way to train the brain to improve its function and to regulate symptoms. Psychotherapy helps the client process and assimilate information, thereby becoming complementary to Neurofeedback.

During a regular Neurofeedback session, three or more electrodes are placed on the scalp in specific areas of the brain, where one is actively training and others are placed to act as references and poles. A state-of-the-art electronic equipment allows clinicians to amplify frequencies in a computer interface setting, helping clients to receive instant feedback of the brain wave frequencies. Through the process of operant conditioning, clients will learn to retrain their brain to achieve more of the desires brain waves in specific areas and reduce them in others.

There is a multitude of electrical activity in the brain, with the most brain wave frequencies being Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta and Gamma. These frequencies range from slower to faster and are measures in Hertz per second. Each frequency is associated with certain behaviours, mood and other functions of an individual. For instance, Delta waves are associated with states of deep restorative sleep, while gamma waves are mostly associated with intense focus and helping the integration of information between areas of the brain. Alpha waves are mostly correlated with states of relaxation, but ready to react if needed.


Heart Rate Variability (HRV) training requires placing sensors on the fingertips and measures the respiratory rate, pulse and skin conductance. Feedback is given on a computer screen with images that indicate if the respiration and heart rate are being regulated. The purpose of using HRV biofeedback first is to oxygenate the brain before neurofeedback to improve the learning process. 

Quantitive EEG ( Electroencephalogram) is a non-invasive assessment that collects electrical activity from different structures of the brain. By placing 19 electrodes in different brain regions (known as Bradman sites), it is possible to record frequency rhythms generated by cortical mechanisms inside the brain. 

This EGG technology collects readings of frequency rhythms in the following ranges: Delta 0-3 Hz, Theta 4-7 Hz, Alpha 8-11 Hz, SMR 12-15 Hz, Beta 15-18 Hz, High Beta 22-36 Hz and Gamma 36-45 Hz. This information is compared to a normative database that can reveal possible abnormalities in the distribution of frequencies. The comparison allows the neurotherapist to better understand the client's brain connectivity and to support them by establishing protocols to achieve the client's individual learning goals. The analysis also provides a baseline to assess progress over time. 

ERP's (Event related potentials) have been defined by brain potentials associated with information flow in cortical areas evoked by some event, stimulus or movement.